The knee surgery is the branch of medicine that addresses the various problems affecting the articulation as a whole (the junction between the femur, tibia, and patella), which includes not only bones but also cartilage, menisci, ligaments (anterior, posterior and collateral) and capsule.

An artificial knee joint (knee joint prosthesis) sometimes has to be used if there has been severe damage with pain in the knee in the case of illness or wear and tear. It is an operation in which the prosthesis is implanted as a replacement of the natural knee joint.

This minimally invasive operation is generally performed in day hospital mode and consists of an incision of about one centimeter through which an equally small and sophisticated camera (arthroscope) is inserted. Thanks to this tool, the surgeon can monitor the health status of the joint and, possibly, to intervene to remedy the situation.

If it is necessary to restore the functionality of some knee element, further incisions are made to allow access to the various tools necessary for the purpose.

The intervention of knee surgery allows the elimination of the most common symptoms typical of pathologies affecting this joint (pain, swelling, blockage of movements, sagging, reduced mobility, etc.) and allows the total restoration of knee function.

For example, in the case of a lesion of the meniscus, arthroscopy allows the repair or removal of the injured part. If, on the other hand, free bodies are present that wander through the joint, this knee surgery is the best way to identify and eliminate them.

The best orthopedic surgeons in Bangalore is Dr. Sanjay Prasad Hegde of Narayana Multispeciality Hospital in Bangalore. Knee Arthroscopy cost in India starts from USD 1000.

Causes of damage in the knee joint

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Damage to the knee joint may be due to diseases. Among the causative, diseases include arthritis (joint wear), joint inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis ( rheumatoid arthritis, chronic polyarthritis), and inflammation or other causes, such as by pathogens such as bacteria. Likewise, injuries to the joint (e.g., the ligaments) or fractures near the knee may be the cause.

Changes in joints caused by signs of wear and tear are called osteoarthritis. It may be due to old age and heavy stress on the joint.

Inflammatory joint changes may be caused by pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses or fungi, psoriasis or, more often, autoimmune processes. These are processes in which tissue is attacked by the body’s defense. In the joint, this manifests as rheumatoid arthritis.

Symptoms

Knee joint arthrosis (knee joint wear, gonarthrosis) may restrict the movement of the joint to stiffen the joint. Pain is common.

Joint inflammation (arthritis, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis) also manifests as pain and stiffness. It comes to a change in shape, which is often visible externally.

Diagnosis

After a survey of the patient, a thorough physical examination is carried out. There are various examination techniques used. In imaging methods, X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), changes can be used. It is essential in some instances (e.g., in the case of suspected rheumatoid arthritis) to have a blood test. In a joint mirroring (arthroscopy), pathological changes can be seen and assessed via an optical device.

Surgery

If a non-surgical treatment or alternative surgery is not possible or successful, the use of an artificial knee joint (prosthesis) can be performed.

For joint replacement, there are several types of prostheses from different manufacturers. Which option is chosen depends on the individual circumstances, among other things on the condition of the joint capsule and ligaments as well as the general health of the patient. Usually, a total endoprosthesis is used, in which the entire connection of the femur and tibia is renewed (knee TEP). Only sometimes a partial replacement is sufficient.

Complications

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Swelling and pain are common but usually disappear soon. The operation can damage nearby structures. It can cause bleeding, bleeding, and bruising. Infections wound healing disorders, and scarring can occur. Nerve injuries can lead to sensory disturbances or paralysis phenomena. A possible bloodstream cuff can cause pressure damage or paralysis. A bone fracture may occur during the operation.

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